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Terracotta Quartz Scheduler Where is an Enterprise feature that allows jobs and triggers to run on specified Terracotta clients instead of randomly chosen ones. Quartz Scheduler Where provides a locality API that has a more readable fluent interface for creating and scheduling jobs and triggers. This locality API, together with configuration, can be used to route jobs to nodes based on defined criteria:
This section shows you how to install, configure, and use the locality API. You should already be familiar with using Quartz Scheduler (see the installation guide and the Quartz Scheduler documentation).
To access the Quartz Scheduler Locality API in a standard installation, include the file
quartz-terracotta-ee-<version>.jar in your classpath, where <version> is Quartz version 2.0.0 or higher. This jar is found under the
For DSO installation, see Terracotta DSO Installation.
To configure Quartz Scheduler Where, follow these steps:
org.quartz.spi.InstanceIdGeneratorto generate instance IDs to be used in the locality configuration. See Understanding Generated Node IDs for more information about generating instance IDs.
Configure the node and trigger groups in
quartzLocality.properties. For example:
# Set up node groups that can be referenced from application code. # The values shown are instance IDs: org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.slowJobs = node0, node3 org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.fastJobs = node1, node2 org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.allNodes = node0, node1, node2, node3 # Set up trigger groups whose triggers fire only on nodes # in the specified node groups. For example, a trigger in the # trigger group slowTriggers will fire only on node0 and node3: org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.slowJobs.triggerGroups = slowTriggers org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.fastJobs.triggerGroups = fastTriggers
quartzLocality.properties is on the classpath, the same as
See Quartz Scheduler Where Code Sample for an example of how to use Quartz Scheduler Where.
Terracotta clients each run an instance of a clustered Quartz Scheduler scheduler. Every instance of this clustered scheduler must use the same scheduler name, specified in
quartz.properties. For example:
# Name the clustered scheduler. org.quartz.scheduler.instanceName = myScheduler
myScheduler's data is shared across the cluster by each of its instances. However, every instance of myScheduler must also be identified uniquely, and this unique ID is specified in
quartz.properties by the property
org.quartz.scheduler.instanceId. This property should have one of the following values:
<string>– A string value that identifies the scheduler instance running on the Terracotta client that loaded the containing
quartz.properties. Each scheduler instance must have a unique ID value.
For example, you can set
org.quartz.scheduler.instanceId to equal "node1" on one node, "node2" on another node, and so on.
If you set
org.quartz.scheduler.instanceId equal to "AUTO", then you should specify a generator class in
quartz.properties using the property
org.quartz.scheduler.instanceIdGenerator.class. This property can have one of the values listed in the following table.
||Returns the hostname as the instance ID|
Returns the value of the
||Returns an instance ID composed of the local hostname with the current timestamp appended. Ensures a unique name. If you do not specify a generator class, this generator class is used by default. However, this class is not suitable for use with Quartz Scheduler Where because the IDs it generates are not predictable.|
Specify your own implementation of the interface
org.quartz.simpl.SystemPropertyInstanceIdGenerator is useful in environments that use initialization scripts or configuration files. For example, you could add the instanceId property to an application server's startup script in the form
-Dorg.quartz.scheduler.instanceId=node1, where "node1" is the instance ID assigned to the local Quartz Scheduler scheduler. Or it could also be added to a configuration resource such as an XML file that is used to set up your environment.
The instanceId property values configured for each scheduler instance can be used in
quartzLocality.properties node groups. For example, if you configured instance IDs node1, node2, and node3, you can use these IDs in node groups:
org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.group1 = node1, node2 org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.allNodes = node1, node2, node3
Quartz Scheduler Where offers the following constraints:
See the code samples provided below for how to use these constraints.
A cluster has Terracotta clients running Quartz Scheduler running on the following hosts: node0, node1, node2, node3. These hostnames are used as the instance IDs for the Quartz Scheduler scheduler instances because the following
quartz.properties properties are set as shown:
org.quartz.scheduler.instanceId = AUTO #This sets the hostnames as instance IDs: org.quartz.scheduler.instanceIdGenerator.class = org.quartz.simpl.HostnameInstanceIdGenerator
quartzLocality.properties has the following configuration:
org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.slowJobs = node0, node3 org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.fastJobs = node1, node2 org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.allNodes = node0, node1, node2, node3 org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.slowJobs.triggerGroups = slowTriggers org.quartz.locality.nodeGroup.fastJobs.triggerGroups = fastTriggers
The following code snippet uses Quartz Scheduler Where to create locality-aware jobs and triggers.
// Note the static imports of builder classes that define a Domain Specific Language (DSL). import static org.quartz.JobBuilder.newJob; import static org.quartz.TriggerBuilder.newTrigger; import static org.quartz.locality.LocalityTriggerBuilder.localTrigger; import static org.quartz.locality.NodeSpecBuilder.node; import static org.quartz.locality.constraint.NodeGroupConstraint.partOfNodeGroup; import org.quartz.JobDetail; import org.quartz.locality.LocalityTrigger; // Other required imports... // Using the Quartz Scheduler fluent interface, or the DSL. /***** Node Group + OS Constraint Create a locality-aware job that can be run on any node from nodeGroup "group1" that runs a Linux OS: *****/ LocalityJobDetail jobDetail1 = localJob( newJob(myJob1.class) .withIdentity("myJob1") .storeDurably(true) .build()) .where( node() .is(partOfNodeGroup("group1")) .is(OsConstraint.LINUX)) .build(); // Create a trigger for myJob1: Trigger trigger1 = newTrigger() .forJob("myJob1") .withIdentity("myTrigger1") .withSchedule(simpleSchedule() .withIntervalInSeconds(10) .withRepeatCount(2)) .build(); // Create a second job: JobDetail jobDetail2 = newJob(myJob2.class) .withIdentity("myJob2") .storeDurably(true) .build(); /***** Memory Constraint Create a locality-aware trigger for myJob2 that will fire on any node that has a certain amount of free memory available: *****/ LocalityTrigger trigger2 = localTrigger(newTrigger() .forJob("myJob2") .withIdentity("myTrigger2")) .where( node() // fire on any node in allNodes // with at least 100MB in free memory. .is(partOfNodeGroup("allNodes")) .has(atLeastAvailable(100, MemoryConstraint.Unit.MB))) .build(); /***** A Locality-Aware Trigger For an Existing Job The following trigger will fire myJob1 on any node in the allNodes group that's running Linux: *****/ LocalityTrigger trigger3 = localTrigger(newTrigger() .forJob("myJob1") .withIdentity("myTrigger3")) .where( node() .is(partOfNodeGroup("allNodes"))) .build(); /***** Locality Constraint Based on Cache Keys The following job detail sets up a job (cacheJob) that will be fired on the node where myCache has, locally, the most keys specified in the collection myKeys. After the best match is found, missing elements will be faulted in. If these types of jobs are fired frequently and a large amount of data must often be faulted in, performance could degrade. To maintain performance, ensure that most of the targeted data is already cached. *****/ // myCache is already configured, populated, and distributed. Cache myCache = cacheManager.getEhcache("myCache"); // A Collection is needed to hold the keys for the elements to be targeted by cacheJob. // The following assumes String keys. Set<String> myKeys = new HashSet<String>(); ... // Populate myKeys with the keys for the target elements in myCache. // Create the job that will do work on the target elements. LocalityJobDetail cacheJobDetail = localJob( newJob(cacheJob.class) .withIdentity("cacheJob") .storeDurably(true) .build()) .where( node() .has(elements(myCache, myKeys))) .build();
Notice that trigger3, the third trigger defined, overrode the partOfNodeGroup constraint of myJob1. Where triggers and jobs have conflicting constraints, the triggers take priority. However, since trigger3 did not provide an OS constraint, it did not override the OS constraint in myJob1. If any of the constraints in effect — trigger or job — are not met, the trigger will go into an error state and the job will not be fired.
The CPU constraint allows you to run jobs on machines with adequate processing power:
... import static org.quartz.locality.constraint.CpuConstraint.loadAtMost; ... // Create a locality-aware trigger for someJob. LocalityTrigger trigger = localTrigger(newTrigger() .forJob("someJob") .withIdentity("someTrigger")) .where( node() // fire on any node in allNodes // with at most the specified load: .is(partOfNodeGroup("allNodes")) .has(loadAtMost(.80))) .build();
The load constraint refers to the CPU load (a standard *NIX load measurement) averaged over the last minute. A load average below 1.00 indicates that the CPU is likely to execute the job immediately. The smaller the load, the freer the CPU, though setting a threshold that is too low could make it difficult for a match to be found.
Other CPU constraints include
CpuContraint.coresAtLeast(int amount), which specifies a node with a minimum number of CPU cores, and
CpuConstraint.threadsAvailableAtLeast(int amount), which specifies a node with a minimum number of available threads.
|If a trigger cannot fire because it has constraints that cannot be met by any node, that trigger will go into an error state. Applications using Quartz Scheduler Where with constraints should be tested under conditions that simulate those constraints in the cluster.|
This example showed how memory and node-group constraints are used to route locality-aware triggers and jobs. trigger2, for example, is set to fire myJob2 on a node in a specific group ("allNodes") with a specified minimum amount of free memory. A constraint based on operating system (Linux, Microsoft Windows, Apple OSX, and Oracle Solaris) is also available.
If a trigger cannot fire on the specified node or targeted node group, the associated job will not execute. Once the misfireThreshold timeout value is reached, the trigger misfires and any misfire instructions are executed.
It is also possible to add locality to jobs and triggers created with the standard Quartz Scheduler API by assigning the triggers to a trigger group specified in